An example of extreme state censorship was the Nazis requirements of using art as propaganda. Art was only allowed to be used as a political instrument to control people and failure to act in accordance with the censors was punishable by law, even fatal. The Degenerate Art Exhibition is a historical instance that's goal was to advertise Nazi values and slander others. Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. It may be carried out by governments or by private organizations either at the behest of government or on their own initiative.
Individuals and organizations may engage in self-censorship on their own or due to intimidation and fear. The issues associated with Internet censorship are similar to those for offline censorship of more traditional media. One difference is that national borders are more permeable online: residents of a country that bans certain information can find it on websites hosted outside the country. Thus censors must work to prevent access to information even though they lack physical or legal control over the websites themselves.
Literary Censorship :: essays research papers
This in turn requires the use of technical censorship methods that are unique to the Internet, such as site blocking and content filtering. Unless the censor has total control over all Internet-connected computers, such as in North Korea or Cuba , total censorship of information is very difficult or impossible to achieve due to the underlying distributed technology of the Internet.
Pseudonymity and data havens such as Freenet protect free speech using technologies that guarantee material cannot be removed and prevents the identification of authors. Technologically savvy users can often find ways to access blocked content. Nevertheless, blocking remains an effective means of limiting access to sensitive information for most users when censors, such as those in China , are able to devote significant resources to building and maintaining a comprehensive censorship system.
Views about the feasibility and effectiveness of Internet censorship have evolved in parallel with the development of the Internet and censorship technologies:. A BBC World Service poll of 27, adults in 26 countries, including 14, Internet users,  was conducted between 30 November and 7 February The head of the polling organization felt, overall, that the poll showed that:.
Corporate Censorship Is a Serious, and Mostly Invisible, Threat to Publishing
The rising usages of social media in many nations has led to the emergence of citizens organizing protests through social media, sometimes called " Twitter Revolutions ". The most notable of these social media led protests were parts Arab Spring uprisings , starting in In response to the use of social media in these protests, the Tunisian government began a hack of Tunisian citizens' Facebook accounts, and reports arose of accounts being deleted. Automated systems can be used to censor social media posts, and therefore limit what citizens can say online. This most notably occurs in China , where social media posts are automatically censored depending on content.
In , Harvard political science professor Gary King led a study to determine what caused social media posts to be censored and found that posts mentioning the government were not more or less likely to be deleted if they were supportive or critical of the government. Posts mentioning collective action were more likely to be deleted than those that had not mentioned collective action. For the Chinese government, seeing citizens unhappy with local governance is beneficial as state and national leaders can replace unpopular officials.
King and his researchers were able to predict when certain officials would be removed based on the number of unfavorable social media posts. Research has proved that criticism is tolerable on social media sites, therefore it is not censored unless it has a higher chance of collective action. It isn't important whether the criticism is supportive or unsupportive of the states' leaders, the main priority of censoring certain social media posts is to make sure that no big actions are being made due to something that was said on the internet.
Posts that challenge the Party's political leading role in the Chinese government are more likely to be censored due to the challenges it poses to the Chinese Communist Party. Since the early s, advocates of video games have emphasized their use as an expressive medium , arguing for their protection under the laws governing freedom of speech and also as an educational tool. Detractors argue that video games are harmful and therefore should be subject to legislative oversight and restrictions.
Many video games have certain elements removed or edited due to regional rating standards.
Decapitation scenes are implied, but not shown. Scenes of missing body parts after having been cut off, are replaced with the same scene, but showing the body parts fully intact. Surveillance and censorship are different. Surveillance can be performed without censorship, but it is harder to engage in censorship without some form of surveillance. Protection of sources is no longer just a matter of journalistic ethics; it increasingly also depends on the journalist's computer skills and all journalists should equip themselves with a "digital survival kit" if they are exchanging sensitive information online or storing it on a computer or mobile phone.
The former Soviet Union maintained a particularly extensive program of state-imposed censorship. Glavlit censorship personnel were present in every large Soviet publishing house or newspaper; the agency employed some 70, censors to review information before it was disseminated by publishing houses, editorial offices, and broadcasting studios. No mass medium escaped Glavlit ' s control. All press agencies and radio and television stations had Glavlit representatives on their editorial staffs. Sometimes, public knowledge of the existence of a specific document is subtly suppressed, a situation resembling censorship.
The authorities taking such action will justify it by declaring the work to be " subversive " or "inconvenient". An example is Michel Foucault 's text Sexual Morality and the Law later republished as The Danger of Child Sexuality , originally published as La loi de la pudeur [literally, "the law of decency"].
This work defends the decriminalization of statutory rape and the abolition of age of consent laws. When a publisher comes under pressure to suppress a book, but has already entered into a contract with the author, they will sometimes effectively censor the book by deliberately ordering a small print run and making minimal, if any, attempts to publicize it. This practice became known in the early s as privishing priv ate publ ishing. Censorship has been criticized throughout history for being unfair and hindering progress. In a essay on Internet censorship, social commentator Michael Landier claims that censorship is counterproductive as it prevents the censored topic from being discussed.
Landier expands his argument by claiming that those who impose censorship must consider what they censor to be true, as individuals believing themselves to be correct would welcome the opportunity to disprove those with opposing views. Censorship is often used to impose moral values on society, as in the censorship of material considered obscene. English novelist E. Forster was a staunch opponent of censoring material on the grounds that it was obscene or immoral, raising the issue of moral subjectivity and the constant changing of moral values.
When the novel Lady Chatterley's Lover was put on trial in , Forster wrote: . Lady Chatterley's Lover is a literary work of importance I do not think that it could be held obscene, but am in a difficulty here, for the reason that I have never been able to follow the legal definition of obscenity. The law tells me that obscenity may deprave and corrupt, but as far as I know, it offers no definition of depravity or corruption.
Censorship In The Classroom Essay
Censorship by country collects information on censorship, internet censorship , press freedom , freedom of speech , and human rights by country and presents it in a sortable table, together with links to articles with more information. In addition to countries, the table includes information on former countries, disputed countries, political sub-units within countries, and regional organizations.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored. The practice of suppressing information. Main article: Political censorship. Main article: Censorship in Canada.
Main article: Censorship in Cuba. Main article: Censorship in China. Main article: Censorship in Iran. Main article: Censorship in North Korea. See also: Censorship in Serbia. This section does not cite any sources.
Censorship in Chinese Studies
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Censorship in Singapore and Media censorship in Singapore. Main article: Censorship in the Soviet Union. Main article: Censorship in Spain. See also: Censorship in Turkey and block of Wikipedia in Turkey.